The Drift of Sea Ice by Matti Leppäranta

By Matti Leppäranta

This publication provides the basic legislation of sea ice float, as derived from the fabric homes of sea ice, the elemental legislation of mechanics, and the most recent modeling thoughts. themes coated comprise the technology of sea ice waft, forecasting speed in accordance with quantity, measurement and form, sea ice ridging and distant sensing, modelling of ice stipulations, and the position of sea ice go with the flow in oceanography, marine ecology and engineering.

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5 on a daily basis. html). The main problem in sea ice charting is how to obtain good ice thickness informationÐthis is also the main problem for the progress of sea ice dynamics theory and modelling. 1 ICE FLOES TO DRIFT ICE PARTICLES Scales Sea ice mechanics is examined over a wide range of scales. 1 m. 1±10 m, sea ice is a solid sheet, a polycrystalline continuum with a substructure classi®ed according to the formation mechanism as congelation ice, snow ice, and frazil ice (Eicken and Lange, 1989).

12 Drift ice material [Ch. 2 Bering Sea Sea of Okhotsk Bohai Sea Arctic Basin Hudson Bay Baffin Bay Kara Sea Barents Sea Greenland Sea Gulf of St. 1. The world sea's ice zones in summer and winter. Dark area shows the perennial ice, lighter area shows the seasonal sea ice zone. From Untersteiner (1984), with modi®cations for subarctic small basins. Sec. 2. Aerial photograph from a Finnish Air Force ice reconnaissance ¯ight in the central Baltic, winter 1942. Airborne reconnaissance meant a huge step in understanding the morphology and drift of sea ice.

It also provides line data with a fairly large footprint, of the order of the ¯ight altitude (30±100 m). The accuracy of results depends on the inversion model Sec. 14. AEM calibration for ice thickness in the Baltic Sea, March 1993. The vertical bars show drilling data, dark and light-shaded areas show inversions with one- and two-layer models, respectively (the footprint is 100 m). From Multala et al. (1996). 14), since by adding layers a more realistic conductivity distribution can be taken for the ice.

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