Analysis and Dialectic: Studies in the Logic of Foundation by Joseph Russell, P. Russell

By Joseph Russell, P. Russell

The current e-book was once written a few two decades in the past however it has no longer misplaced its topicality, for it comprises a big re-examination of the kinfolk of 2 majorĀ­ streams of up to date philosophy - the Analytical and the Dialectic. Adherents and critics of those traditions are likely to assurnethat they're diametrically hostile, that their roots, issues and techniques contradict one another, and that no reconciliation is feasible. In contradistinction Russell derives either traditions from the typical root of the dissatisfaction with the arguments opposed to speculative philosophy. those based on the writer go away a lacuna - definite elementsof our Weltanschaaung were got rid of, yet they can't be got rid of with no alternative lest we've got an incomplete international view, so incomplete in reality that it can't be achievable. in response to Russell a part of this vacuum is taken up via the analytical culture yet this custom isn't able to taking on the rest of it. That section of the vacant area is despite the fact that taken up by means of the dialectical tradiĀ­ tion, which in flip can't itself deal with the total of the matter. hence the 2 reactions to the loss of life of speculative philosophy seem to be complementary in no less than this feeling. however the writer is going extra, for in keeping with hirn the analytical arguments themselves sincerely aspect to the emergence of dialectical difficulties, and the dialectical difficulties themselves desire a few such historical past to arise.

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But the stress on the LogIcal, nature of philosophica1 problems had , I think, another side. It says that they are 10gica1 as distinct from psychologica1; and in this way analytic philosophy was distinguished from c1assica1 empiricism, with which it has otherwise a great deal in common. Empiricists like Hume had long before rea1ised that philosophical problems were peculiarl y problems about the formation and relation of ideas, but they mostly supposed that this meant that they were essentially psychological in kind, and that their solutions would be given by a careful account of the payohoLog Ical, processes of thinking.

The idea that philosophical questions are, somehow, logical questions, may, then, i f interpreted broadly and v ag uel y as meaning that they are second-order questions raised by science itse1f rather than, directly, by things, be taken as a cl ue in the repetition of the philosophical experience of our times. ue , for it tells us remarkably little. That is why it is amistake to make this formula a point of controversy. In a general way, it directs our attention to a centra1 theme of recent investigation, but in itself it settles nothing of any 32 SCIENCE, SPECULATION AND LOGIC philosophieal eonsequenee.

Either, then, we are asked to believe propositions without genuine evidence, or we proceed, in effect, by defining the fundamental proposi tions to be true. The result is that philosophical dialogue is impossible; for dialogue is pointless when the speakers are unable to agree, not merely about what is true, but about the conditions under which they would decide that aproposition is true. The essential absurdity of this situation escapes the notice of speculative thinkers because they assume that the verification of their systems is connected with their explanatory power, with their capacity to give an account of the whole range of human experience.

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