Algorithmic techniques for the polymer sciences by Bradley S. Tice

By Bradley S. Tice

This new book—the first of its kind—examines using algorithmic innovations to compress random and non-random sequential strings present in chains of polymers. The booklet is an advent to algorithmic complexity. Examples taken from present examine within the polymer sciences are used for compression of like-natured houses as discovered on a series of polymers. either idea and utilized points of algorithmic compression are reviewed. an outline of the kinds of polymers and their makes use of is by way of a bankruptcy on a number of varieties of compression structures that may be used to compress polymer chains into doable devices. The paintings is meant for graduate and postgraduate college scholars within the actual sciences and engineering.

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The author discovered in 1998 a “compressible” random binary sequential string and stands as the most precise and accurate measure of randomness known in statistical physics (Tice, 2009 and 2012). A compressible random binary sequential string program utilizes a traditional binary random sequential string such as [001110110001110] that is 15 characters in length and sub-groups each like-natured sub-group of either 0’s or 1’s as follows: 20 Algorithmic Techniques for the Polymer Sciences [00] + [111] + [0] + [11] + [000] + [111] + [0] A notation system is used behind each initial character to give a total number of like-natured characters in each sub-group while removing the remaining like-natured characters from each sub-group as follows: 0(2) + 1(3) + 0 + 1(2) + 0(3) + 1(3) + 0 The compressed state of the original random 15 character binarysequential string is as follows: 0101010 The compressed state is 7 characters in length from the original pre-compressed state of a 15 character random string.

Two systems are used by various chemical organizations, Simplified Molecular-Input Line-Entry System (SMILES) and Smiles Arbitrary Target Specification (SMARTS) (Wikipedia, “Smiles”, 2013 and Wikipedia, “Simplified”, 2013). The compression of line notation systems is done at the point of repetition of a chemical symbol that makes it “redundant” in the formula’s notation. In the following notation for SMARTS a recursive SMART notation is used to combine acid oxygen and tetrazole nitrogen to define oxygen atoms that are anionic (Wikipedia, “SMARTS”, 2013).

50 Algorithmic Techniques for the Polymer Sciences FIGURE 7 Cytotoxicity of helenalin and its derivatives. Symbol definitions: a is helenalin; b is 2,3-dihydrohelenalin; c is 11,13-dihydrohelenal; d is 2,3,11,13-tetrahydrohelenalin; e is 2,3-epoxyhelenalin; f is 1,2-epoxyhelenalin; g is 1,2: 11,13-diepoxyhelenalin; h is 2,3:11,13-diepoxyhelenalin. 50 Upon first inspection of the two systems of representing information, it is apparent that the signal flow diagram is providing a specific type of information more quickly and more clearly than the table of information, mainly that the rank of percentile is more obvious by the use of branches and nodes on the signal flow diagram than is numerically or alphabetically represented in the table.

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