By Miles McPhee
At a time whilst the polar areas are present process speedy and unparalleled switch, knowing exchanges of momentum, warmth and salt on the ice-ocean interface is important for realistically predicting the longer term country of sea ice. by way of delivering a size platform mostly unaffected via floor waves, drifting sea ice presents a different laboratory for learning elements of geophysical boundary layer flows which are super tricky to degree in different places. This booklet attracts on either vast observations and theoretical rules to increase a concise description of the impression of pressure, rotation, and buoyancy at the turbulence scales that regulate exchanges among the ambience and underlying ocean whilst sea ice is current. numerous fascinating and detailed observational info units are used to demonstrate diverse facets of ice-ocean interplay starting from the impression of salt on melting within the Greenland Sea marginal ice region, to how nonlinearities within the equation of kingdom for seawater have an effect on blending within the Weddell Sea.
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Extra resources for Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes
1 shows the TIC conﬁguration used during LeadEX and SHEBA. The exposed-electrode microstructure conductivity (µ C) instrument is subject to sometimes severe calibration drift and conductivity spikes, but when used in combination with the nearby standard SBE 4, has provided credible direct estimates of salinity ﬂux ( w S ) and allowed us to calculate the total turbulent buoyancy ﬂux from covariance measurements during LeadEX (McPhee 1994; McPhee and Stanton 1996). Mechanical current meters are subject to several limitations, including biological fouling (occasionally a severe problem when ptinafora [jellyﬁsh] are present during a short summer period).
Analysis and prediction of short term ice drift. Transactions of the ASME, J. Offshore Mech. , 110, 94–100 (1988) McPhee, M. : Is thermobaricity a major factor in Southern Ocean ventilation? , 15 (1), 153–160 (2003) McPhee, M. : Upwelling of Arctic pycnocline associated with shear motion of sea ice. Geophys. Res. : Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition. D. thesis: Inertial Oscillations in the Mediterranean. MIT/WHOI (1970) Skyllingstad, E. , Paulson, C. , Pegau, W. , McPhee, M. : Effects of keels on ice bottom turbulence exchange.
2005. With permission American Geophysical Union) 30 2 Basic Physical Concepts corresponding closely but not exactly to the older expression ppt, parts per thousand), and pressure. Common oceanographic usage is to express pressure in terms of the departure from atmospheric pressure at the surface, with units of bars (105 Pa) or dbar (which corresponds reasonably closely with depth in m). The practical salinity scale relates the measured conductivity of seawater to an international standard, and thus provides a unique salinity for given conductivity, temperature, and pressure, all of which can be measured to high accuracy with modern oceanographic instrumentation.